General Information | Electoral System | Last Elections | Presidency of the Parliament




Parliament: Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat
House of Representatives
Structure: Unicameral
Chamber: Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat - House of Representatives
President: H. Wahono (M)
Secretary general: Afif Ma'roef (M)
Members: 500
- 425 directly elected
- 75 appointed
Percentage of women: %
Term: 5 years
Last renewal: 29 May 1997
Address: Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat-Republik Indonesia
Jalan Jenderal Gatot Subroto
Tel.: (6221) 571 55 15, 571 55 17,
571 56 73, 573 48 84
Cable: DPR-RI, Jakarta
Telex: 62396 RHM DPR-RI
Fax: (6221) 573 48 04, 571 55 17
Affiliation to IPU: Yes
Affiliation dates: 1922 -1939


27 multi-member constituencies corresponding to the provinces.

Voting system:
Direct party-list system with proportional distribution of seats according to the simple (Hare) quotient. Remaining seats are allotted through greatest remainders.
Vacancies arising between general elections are filled by a person chosen by the former Representative's party.
Voting is not compulsory.

Voter requirements:
- age: 17 years or married at the time of registration
- Indonesian citizenship
- disqualifications: insanity, ex-members of the prohibited Indonesian communist Party or affiliated mass organizations, direct or indirect involvement in the attempted communist coup of 1965, imprisonment or confinement of at least five years' duration, members of the armed forces

Qualified electors
- age: 21 years
- literate Indonesian citizenship
- proficiency in Indonesian language
- graduation from a secondary high school or equivalent knowledge and experience in social and governmental activities
- loyalty to Pancasila as the basic ideology of the State

(data unavailable)

Candidacy requirements:
- nomination by political parties or functional organizations,each supported by at least two members of the leadership of the organization concerned

Date(s) of elections / renewal
29 May 1997

Purpose of elections
Elections were held for all the elective seats in Parliament on the normal expiry of the members' term of office.

Background and outcome of elections
On 7 March, the final list of candidates for the 425 elective seats of the House of Representatives were approved; these numbered 2,289. They belonged to the ruling Golkar, the United Development Party (PPP) and the Indonesian Democratic Party (PDI) - the three political organisations legally authorised to contest the legislative poll.
During the one-month campaign which opened on 27 April, violent incidents led to over 200 deaths and regulations limited use of the mass media. Golkar, led by President of the Republic (since 1968) Haji Mohamed Suharto, announced that its objective was to win 70% of the popular vote. The President urged all eligible citizens to vote so that the country could accelerate its economic development and consolidate democracy; he defended the official controls on the political system as essential for stability, peace, national unity and the rapid economic growth needed to provide more jobs and raise living standards. Final individual contestants did not include Ms. Megawati Sukarnoputri, the outspoken former leader of the PDI.
In contrast to the pre-election period, polling day - which was combined with voting at the local level - was largely peaceful. Procedures were monitored by an independent national group. Final results gave Golkar - which has strong backing from the government, the bureaucracy and the military - a landslide victory, as it exceeded its stated goal with over 74% of the vote and 325 seats. The Muslim-oriented PPP, led by Mr. Ismail Hasan Metareum - captured 89 (a gain of 27) while the Christian-nationalist PDI slipped badly compared to its previous (1992) showing, going from 56 to 11 seats. Analysts attributed this outcome, above all, to Golkar's overwhelming control of all sectors at all levels of society; it has not lost a general election since 1971.
In March 1998, Parliament will meet together with the People's Consultative Assembly to elect the President and Vice-President of the Republic and approve government policy.

INDONESIA House of Representatives

1. Results of the elections

Number of registered electors 124,740,987
Voters 110,938,069 (88.93%)

2. Distribution of seats according to political group
(provisional results, Herald Tribune, 24/6/1997)

Votes % Seats
Golkar 82,394,419 74.27 325
United Development Party (PPP) 25,135,647 22.66 89
Indonesian Democratic Party (PDI) 3,308,003 3.07 11
*the other 75 members are appointed

3. Distribution of seats according to profession
(data unavailable)

4. Distribution of seats according to sex


5. Distribution of seats according to age

21-30 years
31-40 "
41-50 "
51-65 "
Over 65 "


Appointment and term of office | Status | Functions


Speaker of the House of Representatives

- duration: 5 years (term of House)
- reasons for interruption of the term: resignation, loss of mandate, attribution of other functions outside the House, death, dissolution of the House

- elected by all Members of the House through the spokesmen of their respective factions
- the election is held at the beginning of each legislature
- after validation of mandates and swearing-in

- any Member may be a candidate, but formal notification of candidature by a parliamentary faction is required

Voting system:
- public vote
- election in 2 stages: the first in meetings of the different factions; the second in the House plenary

Procedures / results :
- the oldest Member and the youngest Member preside over the House during the voting
- the oldest Member announces the results without delay
- the results cannot be challenged


- ranks third in the hierarchy of the State
- represents the House with the authorities
- represents the House in international bodies
- in the absence of the Speaker, one of the Deputy Speakers can assume his/her role and functions

- none

Material facilities:
- allowance
+ expense allowance
- official residence
- official car
- secretariat and additional staff
- domestic staff
- bodyguards


Organization of parliamentary business:
- convenes sessions
- establishes and modifies the agenda, with the Standing Committee
- organizes the debates and sets speaking time
- refers texts to a committee for study

Chairing of public sittings:
- can open, adjourn and close sittings
- ensures respect for provisions of the Constitution and Standing Orders
- the Secretary General makes announcements concerning the House
- establishes the list of speakers, gives and withdraws permission to speak
- establishes the order in which amendments are taken up and selects which amendments are to be debated
- calls for a vote, decides how it is to be carried out, verifies the voting procedure and cancels a vote in the event of irregularities
- checks the quorum
- authenticates the texts adopted and the records of debates
- interprets the rules or other regulations governing the life of the House
- has discretionary power to give the floor outside the agenda and thus organizes impromptu debates, with the agreement of the Presidents of the parliamentary groups

Special powers:
- establishes the budget of the House with the assistance of the Household Committee and the Secretary General
- appoints the Secretary General on the proposal of the Presidents of the parliamentary groups
- organizes the services of Parliament with the Secretary General
- the Secretary General recruits, assigns and promotes staff
- is responsible for relations with foreign Parliaments
- is responsible for safety, and in this capacity, can call the police in the event of disturbance in the Chamber

Speaking and voting rights, other functions:
- provides guidelines for the interpretation or completion of the text under discussion
- takes part in voting
- proposes bills or amendments
- transmits the laws adopted to the Head of State for promulgation